2D Drafting

2D drafting and drawing is the process of creating and editing technical drawings, as well as annotating designs. 2D Drafting is the creation of accurate representations of objects for manufacturing and engineering needs. It is used to fully and clearly define requirements for concepts or products so as to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component.

Computer-aided drafting can be done in two (2D) or three dimensions (3D). While more and more companies are using 3D drafting, 2D Drafting continues to remain popular.

2D drafting systems are a big improvement over traditional hand drafting, doing away with all the complications of scale and placement on the drawing sheet. One extension of 2D drafting is 3D wire frame. Each line has to be manually inserted into the drawing. The final product has no mass properties associated with it and cannot have features directly added to it, such as holes.

Drafters use computer-aided design (CAD) software to develop floor plans, building permit drawings, building inspection plans, and landscaping layouts.

CAD software for 2D drafting can be used to draft designs more quickly and with greater precision, without using stencils and technical drawing instruments. 2D CAD software also allows users to document and annotate drawings with text, dimensions, leaders, and tables.

3D Modeling

In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software. The product is called a 3D model. Someone who works with 3D models may be referred to as a 3D artist or a 3D modeler. A 3D Model can also be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. The 3D model can be physically created using 3D printing devices that form 2D layers of the model with three-dimensional material, one layer at a time. In terms of game development, 3D modeling is merely a stage in the entire development process.

An artist uses special software to manipulate points in virtual space (called vertices) to form a mesh: a collection of vertices that form an object. 3D Models may be created automatically or manually. The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics software used to produce 3D models. Individual programs of this class are called modeling applications.

3D Modeling In Action

3D modeling is an integral part of many creative careers. Engineers and architects use it to plan and design their work. Animators and game designers rely on 3D modeling to bring their ideas to life. And just about every Hollywood blockbuster uses 3D modeling for special effects, to cut costs, and                                                                 to speed up production.

Learning 3D modeling can be quite a challenge. Many of the programs are complicated and good modeling principles are based on fundamental art skills. Those with experience in drawing and sculpture will have easier time learning to model. But really, anyone with time and patience can learn these skills.

How Does 3D Modeling Work?

An artist usually begins by generating some type of primitive like a cube, sphere, or plane. The primitive is just a starting shape to begin modeling. The artist will build upon this basic form and manipulate it using various modeling tools. For 3D modeling it’s almost always a good idea to start simple and work towards complexity.

3D modeling is a precise workflow often involving the painstaking placement of individual vertices to achieve the correct contours of the desired object.

The exterior of the mesh is composed of polygons which can be subdivided into smaller shapes to create more detail. These subdivisions are especially necessary if the 3D model is to be animated. Any joints that need to bend—such as a character’s knee or elbow—will need these additional polygons to ensure smooth motion.

Several tools exist to speed up the modeling process.

Once the model is complete the surface can be painted and textured.

Categories of 3D models:

Almost all 3D models can be divided into two categories:

  • Solid – These models define the volume of the object they represent (like a rock). Solid models are mostly used for engineering and medical simulations, and are usually built with constructive solid geometry
  • Shell or boundary – These models represent the surface, i.e. the boundary of the object, not its volume (like an infinitesimally thin eggshell). Almost all visual models used in games and film are shell models.


There are three popular ways to represent a model:

  • Polygonal modeling– Points in 3D space, called vertices, are connected by line segments to form a polygon mesh. The vast majority of 3D models today are built as textured polygonal models, because they are flexible and because computers can render them so quickly. However, polygons are planar and can only approximate curved surfaces using many polygons.
  • Curve modeling – Surfaces are defined by curves, which are influenced by weighted control points. The curve follows (but does not necessarily interpolate) the points. Increasing the weight for a point will pull the curve closer to that point. Curve types include nonuniform rational B-spline(NURBS), splines, patches, and geometric primitives
  • Digital sculpting– Still a fairly new method of modeling, 3D sculpting has become very popular in the few years it has been around.


3D models are used for a variety of mediums including video games, movies, architecture, illustration and commercial advertising. They are also used in the medical industry to create interactive representations of anatomy. A wide number of 3D software are also used in constructing digital representation of mechanical models or parts before they are actually manufactured.

3D modeling is also used in the field of industrial design, wherein products are 3D modeled before representing them to the clients. In media and event industries, 3D modeling is used in stage and set design.

Machine Design

Machine design is an area of study in which one learns to design machine parts by utilizing its whole knowledge and experience in field of mechanical engineering. Machine design is the single most important activity in the mechanical industries. Success or failure of a company has its roots in product design. It is here that manufacturing costs and profits are determined.

The knowledge of machine design helps the designers as follows:

  • To select proper materials and best suited shapes,
  • To calculate the dimensions based on the loads on machines and strength of the material,
  • Specify the manufacturing process for the manufacture of the designed component of the machine or the whole machine.


In short, mechanical design services provide the necessary components and framework to achieve the product’s intended functions. Many industrial design firms can design the exterior of the product with impressive 3D renderings but, although they can look great, the functional requirements are often not accounted for. Key technologies covered include computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), electrical and electronics, fastening and joining, fluid power, manufacturing, engineered materialsmechanical engineering, and motion control.


Designers of machinery are individuals who use their talents to solve user-product problems on an on-going basis. Machine design is a team effort requiring a variety of talents. Machine design is an art as much as a science. Machine design is not either guided by any rigid rules nor is a random procedure. There are a number of factors that can aid a machine design process.

Let us have a look at the general procedure for machine design:

Machine Design Procedure:

  • Understand the Requirements:
    The first step of engineering a high performance machine is recognizing the need i.e. understanding the purpose of design. Preparing a complete statement of the problem that includes details about the aim or purpose for which the mechanical design project is proposed.
  • Analyze and Evaluate the Design Mechanism:
    Shortlist and analyze various possible mechanisms for the machine. Select the best mechanism for your design that will give this machine the desired motion.
  • Analysis of Forces:
    Analyze how every component of a machine with fit in and interact with each other, also analyze what forces act on each and every component of the mechanical equipment and the energy transmitted by each component.
  • Design of Elements:
    All the components of equipment are subject to stress and other forces during operation. These stresses affect the strength of the machine. Hence analyzing these stresses is important to design mechanical equipment that is durable and can endure the stresses of real world working conditions.
  • Material Analysis and Selection:
    Based on the analysis of stresses that work upon the machine components individually select the appropriate material for machine component design.
  • Design Iteration for Manufacturing:
    Design changes, that do not affect the performance of the product but facilitates easy manufacturing the machine and its components is advisable.
  • Creation of Detailed Mechanical Drawings:
    Create the detailed drawings of each component and assembly of the machine. Complete specification using CAD capabilities can be of great assistance for manufacturing process.

Paper to CAD Conversion

CAD conversion service is the process of converting scan-based drawings, PDF and data on paper into accurate CAD drawings. Paper to CAD conversion is as it sounds. It is the process of taking paper-based drawings and converting them into digital form.

Many different sectors require the need for paper to CAD conversion; architecture and engineering are some of the primary industries for this service. Many times, even though it can be costly to hire a drafter or drawer, many architects and engineers may still seek out hand-drawn designs and plans. Drawings can provide an initial level of detail and understanding during the first steps of a building project or the creation of complex machinery. However, while these methods may be preferred in the initial stages of the design process, contractors and clients will benefit from detailed and high-quality digital designs.


While a blueprint may be detailed and offer a more in-depth look into the thought behind a design project, it still has to be fully realized in a program for further understanding. Architectural design firms and engineering projects are likely to have many stakeholders involved, a large amount of money and resources on the line, and time constraints. This scenario means that accuracy and precision are of the utmost importance. As a result, it is necessary to have designers that can convert paper drawings and plans into CAD designs.


Applications of paper to CAD conversions


There is a wide range of applications for these conversions. First, let’s discuss why they are useful.

  • Permanent storage– Paper to CAD conversions enable you to permanently save or store your designs and drawings for later use or to refer to during a future project because Handling, storing and maintaining paper drawings are tedious with the possibilities of damaging or losing them.
  • Free-up physical storage space– Paper drawings and drafts can take up much space. Getting rid of the paper and converting these drafts into a software program can help you have more area in your office for storage.
  • Easier collaboration– Working with team members on a design becomes a lot more challenging if everything is on paper. Paper to CAD conversion allows you to share designs and work on models with others quickly.
  • Efficiently share information– Instead of sending a paper draft through the mail, conversions enable you to send digital designs through email or share them on cloud-based platforms.
  • Create more detailed designs– Even the best drafter may have difficulties producing photorealistic and high-quality designs on paper. Transferring these designs to a program allows designers to add in the details and realism that is necessary.

Part Design

Part designing is the section where you can design specific components of the machine you are making. For example if you are making an engine, then the piston, connecting rod, screws, etc. are the individual parts that u have to design separately in part designing. Later you assemble them.

The Part Design application makes it possible to design precise 3D mechanical parts with an intuitive and flexible user interface, from sketching in an assembly context to iterative detailed design. Part Design application will enable you to accommodate design requirements for parts of various complexities, from simple to advance.


This application, which combines the power of feature-based design with the flexibility of a Boolean approach, offers a highly productive and intuitive design environment with multiple design methodologies, such as post-design and local 3D parameterization.


As a scalable product, Part Design can be used in cooperation with other current or future companion products such as Assembly Design and Generative Drafting.